Mitigation Working Group


The U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, in an effort to implement Executive Order 13089, encourages the applicable agencies and local jurisdictions to continue to coordinate and gather data on the effectiveness of compensatory mitigation from federally funded and permitted activities. This analysis includes an assessment of which mitigation actions are most successful and recommendations for improving and identifying successful mitigation.

The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Environmental Protection agency, U.S. Army Corps of engineers, U.S. Navy, Hawai'i, Guam, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and American Samoa participate as members of the Pacific Region Interagency Working Group for Coral Reef Mitigation. This working group was formed in response to a Task Force resolution to improve the performance of resource agencies and share mitigation and restoration tools, techniques, and lessons learned. In 2006, the working group developed a Management Plan as general guidance for agency member interaction. The plan identifies group goals, objectives, and priorities in support of the effort to coordinate, review, and develop consistent measures for evaluating and implementing mitigation programs addressing impacts to coral reefs resulting from any Federal action.


Handbook on Coral Reef Impacts: Avoidance, Minimization, Compensatory Mitigation, and Restoration
Background: coral reef mitigation
Coral rehabilitation studies:
Turbidity and sedimentation studies:

Background: coral reef mitigation

Pacific Mitigation Report

Atlantic/Caribbean Mitigation Report

Pacific Mitigation Working Group Management Plan: 2005

The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital
Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., de Groot, et al (1997)

Reef Restoration Concepts and Guidelines: making sensible management choices in the face of uncertainty
Edwards, A. and Edgardo Gomez (2007)

Pre-Construction Coral Survey of the M/V Wellwood Grounding Site.
Gittings, Steve (2002)

Bal Harbour Mitigation Artificial Reef Monitoring Program 10-year Progress Report and Summary.
Sathe, M.P., Thanner, S.E., and Blair, S.M. (2010)

Hurricanes and anchors: Preliminary results from the National Park Service regional reef assessment program.
Rogers, C.S. (1994)

Ten years after the crime: lasting effects of damage from a cruise ship anchor on a coral reef in St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands.
Rogers, C.S., and Garrison, V. (2001)

A mid-water coral nursery. Proceedings of the 10th International Coral Reef Symposium.
Shafir, S., Van Rijn, J., and Rinkevich, B. (2006)

Steps in the construction of underwater coral nursery, an essential component of reef restoration acts.
Shafir, S., Van Rijn, J., and Rinkevich, B. (2006)

Coral Reef Metrics and Habitat Equivalency Analysis.
Viehman, S., Thur, S. and Piniak, G. (2009)

Coral rehabilitation studies:

Artificial reefs vs coral transplantation as restoration tools for mitigating coral reef deterioration: benefits, concerns, and proposed guidelines.
Abelson, A. (2006)

The culture, transplantation and storage of Montastrea faveolata, Acropora cervicornis, and A. palmate: What we have learned so far.
Becker, L.C., and Muller, E. (2001)

Coral transplantation and restocking to accelerate the recovery of coral reef habitats and fisheries resources within no take marine protected areas: hands-on approaches to support community based coral reef management.
Bowden-Kerby (2008)

Coral transplantation as an aid to reef rehabilitation: evaluation of case studies in the Maldive Islands.
Clark, S. and Edwards, A.J. ( 1995)

One-year post-baseline monitoring and assessment of coral reattachment success and coral recruitment at the C/V Hind grounding site.
Gilliam, D.G., Thornton, S.L., and Dodge, R.E. (2001)

Coral transplantation as a reef management option. Harriott, V.J., and Fisk, D.J. (1988)

Coral transplantation: an approach of the reestablishment of damaged reefs.
Kalikasan, P.J. (1982)

Survival and growth of coral transplants in Central Philippines.
Kalikasan, P.J. (1982)

Experimental test of the effects of methods of attachment and handling on the rapid transplantation of corals.
Kaly, U.L. (1995)

Coral of opportunity survivorship and use of coral nurseries in coral reef restoration. Monty, J.A., Gilliam, D.G., Banks, K.W., Stout, D.K., and Dodge, R.E. (2006)

Preservation of rare coral species by transplantation and examination of their recruitment and growth.
Plucer-Rosario, G., and Randall, R.H. (1987)

Success and growth of corals transplanted to cement armor mat tiles in southeast Florida: implications for reef restoration.
Thorton, S.L., Dodge, R.E., Gilliam, D.S., DeVictor, R., and Cooke, P. (no date)

Turbidity and sedimentation studies:

Sediment production from unpaved roads in a sub-tropical dry setting - Southwestern Puerto Rico.
Ramos Scharrón, Carlos E. (2010)

Responses of coral reefs and reef organisms to sedimentation.
Rogers, C.S. (1990)